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How does BCG Vaccine help?


Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine for prevention of BCG Vaccine primarily tuberculosis. In countries like India where tuberculosis is a very common disease, one dose of BCG is recommended in healthy babies at the time of birth. In places where TB is uncommon, only high risk babies are vaccinated.  Unimmunized adults who are at exposure to TB infection are also vaccinated. HIV/AIDS babies should not be vaccinated. The vaccine is often used for treatment of cancer of urinary bladder. The duration of protection against TB varies widely between 10 to 20 years. The BCG vaccine was medically first used in the year 1921 and currently is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. The vaccine is given intradermally.

BCG is prepared from live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis strain which is of the attenuated (reduced virulence). Its virulence is reduced to such an extent that it does not have the ability to cause the disease in humans.

There are no major side effects of the vaccination. There might be redness, swelling and pain around the site of injection. Ulceration or scarring, keloids may occur. Infection in lymph nodes causing suppurative or non suppurative lymphadenitis may also occur. Uncommon effects may are gluteal and breast abscesses, bone infection (osteitis or osteomyelitis). However, there may be serious adverse effects in people who are immune compromised. Vaccination during pregnancy is not safe.

The most controversial aspect of BCG vaccination is its variability in its efficacy. There is variability in effectiveness of the vaccine due to geography, genetic variability of BCG strains, genetic variation of population, exposure to bacterial infections e.g. non tuberculous mycobacteria, interference by concurrent parasitic infections etc.

Usage of BCG in various countries

United Kingdom

Children and neonates in high risk groups; no routine immunization

United States

No mass immunization


Routine immunization at birth

Sri Lanka

Routine immunization at birth

South Africa

Routine immunization at birth


No mandatory immunization; recommended for high risk groups.


Routine immunization at birth


Vaccination for high risk groups

Central and South America

Routine immunization at birth


Routine immunization at birth


In 2011 winter, the Sanofi Pasteur plant in Toronto, Ontario, Canada was flooded due to which there were problems with mold. By April 2012 the FDA discovered many documented problems with sterility of the plant including mold, rusted electrical conduits, nesting birds etc. As a result the plant was closed for more than 2 years causing shortfall of tuberculosis vaccines and bladder cancer drugs. On October 29, 2014 Health Ministry of Canada gave the permission for Sanofi plant to resume BCG production.

Sourse @ http://www.globalinforeports.com/report/global-bcg-vaccine-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type-and-application-forecast-to-2022