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General Information about Computed Tomography.

2017-05-05

 

Computed Tomography is a scanning device which uses multiple computer processed X-Ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional or tomographic images of scanned object. Digital geometry processing technique is employed to create a 3D image of the inside of the object using 2D X-Ray images. It thus allows the user to see inside the object without cutting it. The process is also called computer aided tomography or computed axial tomography (CAT scan). It is commonly used in medical diagnostic imaging and also in industrial applications (industrial computed tomography scanning). The term "computed tomography" (CT) is mostly used for X-Ray CT Scan, but many other types of CT Scans exists such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)   

Medical uses:

  • Head- detection of bone trauma, stroke, tumors, edema, infarction, calcifications and hemorrhage, CT-guided radio surgery and stereotactic surgery.
  • Lungs- acute and chronic diseases of lung parenchyma, fibrosis, emphysema, malignancy
  • Pulmonary angiogram- pulmonary embolism
  • Cardiac- coronary angiography
  • Abdominal and pelvic- cancers, investigation of acute abdominal pain
  • Extremities- complex fractures, dislocations, ligamentous injuries

Advantages:

  • There is no superimposition of structures outside the area of interest and due to high contrast resolution; differences in tissue densities by even 1% can be detected.
  • The imaging is multiplanar and reformatted and hence can be viewed axial, sagittal and coronal planes according to the diagnostic requirement.
  • The procedure is non invasive and hence procedures like CT angiography can be done without the painful insertion of catheter.
  • It is far more accurate than conventional methods of diagnosis and can be used as a screening test

Adverse reactions to CT scan may be cancers as the radiation can damage body cells and DNA; contrast reactions may be caused by the injected radio contrast agents;

Disclaimer: The information given in this write-up is purely for educating the reader. It is not meant to be a substitute for any advice from a medical expert.